Plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on silumin for oxidation CO
V. A. Borisov, S. S. Sigaeva, E. A. Anoshkina, A. L. Ivanov, P. V. Litvinov, V. R. Vedruchenko, V. L. Temerev,
A. B. Arbuzov, A. A. Kuznetsov, V. A. Mukhin, G. I. Suprunov, I. A. Chumychko, D. A. Shlyapin, and P. G.
Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020001 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4998821
View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4998821
View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/apc/1876/1
Published by the American Institute of Physics
Articles you may be interested in
Computer simulation of formation and decomposition of Au13 nanoparticles
AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020002 (2017); 10.1063/1.4998822
Preface: Oil and Gas Engineering (OGE-2017)
AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 010001 (2017); 10.1063/1.4998820
Synthesis and study of Pt(Pd)-containing WO3/ZrO2 catalysts for isomerization of n-heptane
AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020005 (2017); 10.1063/1.4998825
Humic sorbent from sapropel for purification of waste waters from petroleum
AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020003 (2017); 10.1063/1.4998823
Complex investigation of influence of lateral interaction energies, activation energy and temperature on surface
AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020007 (2017); 10.1063/1.4998827
Structural features of the adsorption layer of pentacene on the graphite surface and the PMMA/graphite hybrid
AIP Conference Proceedings 1876, 020004 (2017); 10.1063/1.4998824
Plasma Electrolytic Oxide Coatings on Silumin for
V.A. Borisov1, 2, a), S.S. Sigaeva1, E.A. Anoshkina1, A.L. Ivanov4, P.V. Litvinov4, 5,
V.R. Vedruchenko5, V.L. Temerev1, A.B. Arbuzov1, A.A. Kuznetsov5, V.A.
Mukhin3, G.I. Suprunov6, I.A. Chumychko2, D.A. Shlyapin1, and P.G.
Institute of Hydrocarbons Processing, SB RAS, 54, Neftezavodskaya St., Omsk 644040, Russian Federation
Omsk State Technical University, 11, Mira Pr., Omsk 644050, Russian Federation
Dostoevsky Omsk State University, 55a, Mira Pr., Omsk 644077, Russian Federation
Siberian State Automobile and Highway Academy (SibADI), 5, Mira Pr., Omsk 644080, Russian Federation
Omsk State Transport University, 35 K. Marx Pr., Omsk 644046, Russian Federation
JSC Omsk Scientific-Research Institute of Technology and Organization of Engines Production, 283, Bogdan
Khmelnytsky St., Omsk 644021, Russian Federation
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Abstract. Some catalysts of CO oxidation on silumin alloy AK12M2, used for the manufacture of pistons for Russian
cars were investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the method of plasma electrolytic oxidation of silumin in
electrolytes of various compositions with further activation by the salts Ce, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Al. The catalytic tests
were carried out in a flow reactor in a mixture of 1% CO and 99% air, with the temperature range of 25-500 °C. The most
active catalysts in CO oxidation are those activated with Ce and Cu salts on silumin, treated for 3 hours in an electrolyte
containing 4 g/l KOH, 40 g/l Na2B4O7 (conversion of CO is 93.7% at a contact time of 0.25 s). However, the catalysts
obtained from silumin treated in the electrolyte containing 3 g/l KOH, 30 g/l Na2SiO3 are more suitable for practical
usage. Because when the treatment time of those catalysts is 10 – 20 minutes it is possible to achieve comparable CO
conversion. The morphology and composition of the catalysts were studied by the methods of a scanning electron
microscope with energy-dispersive surface analysis and X-ray phase analysis. The surface of the non-activated sample
consists of γ-Al2O3 and SiO2 particles, due to which the active components get attached to the support. CeO 2 and CuO are
present on the surface of the sample with the active component.
Requirements for emissions of harmful substances (HS) with exhaust gases of gasoline and diesel engines are
toughened by introducing new standards, at least every five years. Taking into account that a significant proportion
of vehicles use internal combustion engines (ICE), designing such engines that would meet the requirements of
environmental safety is an urgent task  The main components of harmful emissions are carbon monoxide (CO),
nitrogen oxide (NOx) and products of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons (CH). The most dangerous component is
carbon monoxide - a toxic gas without colour, taste or smell. Carbon monoxide, by binding the hemoglobin of
human and animal blood, forms carboxyhemoglobin which blocks oxygen transport to tissues and organs. This gas
causes severe poisoning at concentration of 0.2% by volume, and when it exceeds 1% it becomes lethal. Carbon
monoxide (CO) is formed during the combustion of hydrocarbons in a lack of oxygen, during cold-flame reactions
in diesel engines or in the dissociation of carbon dioxide (CO 2) in gasoline engines. Reduction of emissions of this
component is one of the main tasks in modern engine building. One of the ways to reduce emissions of harmful
Oil and Gas Engineering (OGE-2017)
AIP Conf. Proc. 1876, 020001-1–020001-10; doi: 10.1063/1.4998821
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1556-0/$30.00
substances with exhaust gases is the use of catalytic converters . However, several studies have shown that they
are not reliable at low temperatures and at cold-start of ICE. Changing the parameters of the working process of the
engine is one of the possible solutions to this problem.
The temperature of the working fluid and the surface of the combustion chamber are the main parameters. The
temperature of the piston on the side of the combustion chamber has a significant influence on these parameters;
therefore the material for the piston is selected taking into account its influence on the combustion process of the
fuel . The temperature must not exceed 400 °C in the engine cylinder, since the destruction of pistons made of
various alloys, including bimetallic ones, begins at this temperature. Ceramic-coated pistons can withstand such a
temperature , but they do not have a catalytic effect on combustion products, neither do corundum-coated pistons.
Catalytic coatings of parts of the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine are known to be used
with preliminary plasma-electrolytic oxidation of their surfaces. In the reference publication  it is established that
by using such coatings, a fuel economy of 2 to 9 % by weight can be achieved. In  it is established that the
greatest conversion of carbon monoxide can be achieved by using palladium catalysts on silumin alloys
corresponding to the material of the internal combustion engine piston. [7-10].
However, if noble metals are used, the cost of an ICE increases. The use of noble metals also makes this
technique difficult to apply to ship and diesel engines. Thus, the solution to the problem of using catalysts that do
not contain noble metals in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is an urgent task.
EXPERIMENTAL PART AND DATA ANALYSIS
The samples used for the research were made from the piston of the VAZ-2108 car. These pistons are known to
be made of silumin AK12M2 brand, which was confirmed by atomic emission spectrometry. The analysis was
carried out on the Argon-5SF device. The analysis technique is presented in [11, 12].
Table 1 shows the data of the additional spectral analysis of the alloy. The composition of the alloy matches
silumin of the brand AK12M2 which complies with the State Standard GOST 1583-93.
TABLE 1. The results of spectral analysis of samples of aluminum alloy
The preparation of the catalysts consisted of several stages. The plates were made from silumin of the brand
AK12M2 on a milling machine. The pistons of a gasoline engine (ICE) from VAZ-2108 car which are manufactured
in a mass production were used as components for this material.
FIGURE 1. Stages of catalyst preparation
The samples of silumin were subjected to plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The samples were then activated
with precursors of the active components, dried and calcined at 500 °C for 3 hours. The samples of silumin 80 × 8 ×
1 mm were fixed as an anode. The aluminum plate 150 × 80 × 1 mm, folded into a cylinder, served as a cathode. It
was placed tightly near the inner side of the electrochemical cell equipped with water cooling. PEO was carried out
at a constant current density of 1.1-1.7 A/dm2 in solutions of electrolytes, the composition of those is given in Table
TABLE 2. Electrolytes for PEO coating
10.8 g/l Na3PO4, 6.9 g/l Na2B4O7, 1.8 g/l Na2WO4
10.8 g/l Na3PO4, 6.9 g/l Na2B4O7, 1.8 g/l Na2WO4, 3 g/l NH4F
10.8 g/l Na3PO4, 6.9 g/l Na2B4O7, 1.8 g/l Na2WO4, 20 g/l Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O и
5 g/l Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O
4 g/l KOH, 40 g/l Na2B4O7
4 g/l KOH, 40 g/l Na2B4O7, 3 g/l NH4F
3 g/l KOH, 30 g/l Na2SiO3
3 g/l KOH, 30 g/l Na2SiO3, 1.5 g/l AlF3
* – NH4F and AlF3 were added to the standard electrolytes for undercutting Al 2O3 on the surface of the silumin
to develop the surface of the support by the growth of the coating inside the sample. Fluorides also passivate copper
contained in silumin, which prevents the destruction of the barrier layer.
The largest gain per time unit was obtained by using the electrolyte KSi due to the deposition of SiO2. PWB,
PWBF and PWBCuNi provided smaller gain. In electrolytes KB and KBF the gain was very little or absent, because
the coating is formed only from silumin, and not from the electrolyte solution. The names of the catalysts, for
example, KSi120CuCe, were given as follows: KSi is the electrolyte, 120 is the PEO time of the sample being
treated in the electrolyte solution with the time measured in minutes, CuCe are the active oxide components of the
For the studies, 3 series of catalysts were prepared. To determine effects of active oxide properties, a series of
samples was prepared: PWB40CuCe, PWB40Co, PWB40Ni, PWB40MnAl and PWB20NiCu (the optimum PEO
treatment time in this electrolyte was taken from ). To study effects of catalyst support properties, a series of
samples was prepared: KSi120CuCe, KSiAl10CuCe, KSiAl40CuCe, KBF40CuCe, KB180CuCe and
PWBF40CuCe, PWB40CuCe. To study how the degree of conversion is dependent on the time of PEO in the
silicate electrolyte, a series of samples was prepared: KSi10CuCe, KSi20CuCe, KSi30CuCe, and KSi45CuCe.
The application of the active components was carried out by impregnating the prepared supports with solutions
of precursors. The following precursors were chosen: Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O, (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6, Co(NO3)2∙6H2O,
Ni(NO3)2∙6H2O, Mn(NO3)2∙2H2O and Al(NO3)3∙9H2O, because when they decompose, dispersed oxides of the
corresponding metals are formed, which are active in the oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO. After the application of
the precursors of the active components, the samples were placed in an oven for 1 hour at a temperature of 120°C
and then calcined in air at 500°C for 3 hours. The temperature of calcination and subsequent catalytic tests is above
400°C, which is essential for determining the maximum activity of the catalyst and choosing the best one for future
testing of catalytic coatings in ICE. To obtain catalytic coating of the piston, milder conditions will be used.
The activity of the obtained catalysts in the CO oxidation reaction was studied in a flow reactor using a feed gas
mixture of 1% CO + 99% air. The contact time was ~ 0.4 s. The CO concentration before and after the reaction was
measured chromatographically. The activity was estimated from the temperatures reaching 50 % of the conversion
(T50). For the catalytic tests, samples with a mass of 0.8-1.2 g were used.
The KSi20CuCe sample was further examined by scanning methods of electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray
phase analysis (XRD). To determine the composition and morphology of the surface, the sample was applied to a
conductive carbon adhesive tape fixed on a removable aluminum alloy plate with a special design stage that was
placed in a “JEOL” microscope including the “INCAx-act” x-ray energy dispersive spectrometer produced by
“Oxford Instruments” company. The morphology of the sample surface was examined using secondary electrons at
an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. Local chemical analysis was performed at magnifications of 500-5000.
XRD was conducted on a DRON 3M device with a copper anti-cathode. Conditions of the analysis: I = 25 mA,
V = 35 kV. A sample of 20 × 8 × 1 mm was fixed in a cuvette and placed in the device.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To determine the comparative activity of the supported oxides, the samples obtained in the electrolyte PWB were
used as supports In the course of the study it was found that supports prepared by the plasma-electrolytic oxidation
method and pure silumin containing no active component are not very active in the deep CO oxidation. According to
the degree of conversion at 500 ° C, oxide catalysts obtained on silumin treated in the PWB electrolyte in the deep
CO oxidation form the following series of activities: PWB40CuCe (84.6%)> PWB40MnAl (40.5%)> PWB40Co
(21.2%)> PWB20NiCu (10.4%) > PWB40Ni (7.6%).
FIGURE 2. The dependence of the catalytic activity on deposited oxide properties
Due to the fact that the KSi120CuCe sample was twice as much more active than the other samples, further
studies were carried out on catalysts impregnated with salts of Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O and (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6.
The electrolyte, in which the most active catalyst is obtained, was chosen from those described in the reference
FIGURE 3. The dependence of the sample catalytic activity on electrolyte compounds
According to the degree of conversion at 500°C in deep CO oxidation, the oxide catalysts obtained on silumin
which is treated by different electrolytes and activated by copper-cerium compounds the following series is formed:
KB180CuCe (93.7 %) > KSiAl10CuCe (87.8 %) > KSi120CuCe (87.2 %) > PWB40CuCe (84.6 %) >
PWBF40CuCe (79.5 %) > KBF40CuCe (73.5 %) > KSiAl40CuCe (71.2 %). The sample KB180CuCe shows the
maximum activity among the samples activated by copper-cerium compounds, because, according to XRD, it
contains γ-Al2O3, which is known to be the best support for the oxide copper-containing catalysts. However, the
Al2O3 layer increases very slowly in the KB electrolyte. The fastest growing is the layer of oxides on silumin
treated in KSi electrolyte. It can be seen that a much more active catalyst is obtained during a 10-minute-treatment
in the KSiAl electrolyte in comparison to a 40-minute-treatment, so it was decided to study the activity of the
catalyst depending on the time of treatment in the KSi electrolyte (Fig. 4).
FIGURE 4. The dependence of the catalytic activity of the sample on the time of treatment in the electrolyte KSi
The study of the conversion degree dependence on the time of PEO was carried out to determine the optimum
treatment time in order to reduce the treatment time and reduce the costs of electricity and reagents when moving to
larger scale production in the future. Despite small differences in the degree of conversion at 500°C, it can be
concluded that with an increase of the treatment time of silumin, the activity in the CO oxidation deposited on the
oxidized silumin of copper-cerium catalysts decreases. In accordance with the degree of conversion at 500°C, the
oxide catalysts obtained on silumin treated in the KSi electrolyte and activated by Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O and
(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 in the deep CO oxidation form the following series: KSi10CuCe (83.3 %) > KSi20CuCe (80.9 %)
> KSi30CuCe (80.1 %) > KSi45CuCe (68.0 %). The activity of samples treated only for 10-30 minutes is higher
than the activity of samples treated for 45 minutes, which is connected with the development of the surface at the
starting time, due to the formation of craters from breakdown and the formation of a highly dispersed phase of
oxides, mainly γ-Al2O3. With the increase of treatment time, the dispersion of the oxide phase begins to fall due to
reflow and coarsening of the primary oxide particles. Moreover, the contribution to the reduction of the SiO2 phase,
which is less suitable for the deposition of oxides, increases. If the treatment time is increased, the oxide layer
grows, which can have a negative effect on the functioning of the internal combustion engine due to the damage of
the cylinder-piston parts during the process of separation of the coating. Therefore, it can be recommended to use
the minimum treatment time for silumin elements from 10 to 20 minutes. The catalytic coating must fulfill the
requirements not only for testing it on a laboratory equipment, but also for testing the piston in the ICE.
FIGURE 5. Microphotograph of coating on silumin (а) after PEO (sample KSi20), (b) after activation with copper and cerium
compounds (sample KSi20CuCe)
The source silumin of the brand AK12M2 has a smooth homogeneous structure. According to energy-dispersive
analysis, the signals from Al and Si were predominantly recorded in the spectra. After PEO (Fig. 5a) on electron
microscopic images, it is seen that the surface of the sample is represented by conglomerates of particles of round
shape up to 30 μm in size. According to energy-dispersive analysis, large particles are mainly amorphous SiO2,
while aluminum oxide forms an even coating. Also, in the thinnest parts of the coating some metallic aluminum is
found According to the total spectrum, aluminum and silicon, as well as some impurities of sodium and potassium
from the electrolyte are contained in the coating in the form of oxides. Impregnation of the samples with PEO
coating with a solution of precursors of active components and subsequent calcination results in the formation of a
less rough layer, as evidenced by a decrease in the size of the conglomerates of the particles down to 10 μm (Fig.
5b). According to the total spectrum, the support elements – aluminum and silicon – are mostly covered with the
deposited oxides of copper and cerium Thus, the silicon content in the surface layer is reduced from 36% to 9%, and
the aluminum content is reduced from 7.9% to 1.6%. That is a decrease by 4 - 5 times. This result also indicates that
the oxides of copper and cerium cover the support with a continuous layer.
FIGURE 6. X-ray diffractograms of samples KSi20 and KB180: □ – γ-Al2O3, Δ – α-Al2O3,○ – Al, ◊ – Si
X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed that the surface of the catalyst KSi20 is formed by the phases γ-Al2O3, Al
and Si-elements of the base. The phase of silicon dioxide is not detected, probably due to its location on the surface
of the sample in the X-ray amorphous state. For comparison, XRD of the best support KB180 was performed - the
surface of the sample was based on the phases - γ-Al2O3, α-Al2O3, Al and Si.
The catalysts based on silumin alloy AK12M2 were prepared with the PEO method with the subsequent
activation by Ce, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn and Al salts and investigated in СO oxidation. It was established that the oxide
catalysts obtained on the silumin treated in the PWB electrolyte with the deep CO oxidation and with the degree of
transformation at 500°С form the following series: PWB40CuCe (84.6%) > PWB40MnAl (40.5%) > PWB40Co
(21.2%) > PWB20NiCu (10.4%) > PWB40Ni (7.6%).
The oxide catalysts obtained on silumin treated in other electrolytes and activated by Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O and
(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 in the deep CO oxidation and with the degree of conversion at 500°C form the following series:
KB180CuCe (93.7%) > KSiAl10CuCe (87.8%) > KSi120CuCe (87.2%) > PWB40CuCe (84.6%) > PWBF40CuCe
(79.5%) > KBF40CuCe (73.5%) > KSiAl40CuCe (71.2%).
The oxide catalysts obtained on silumin treated in the KSi electrolyte and activated by Cu(NO3)2∙3H2O and
(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 in the deep CO oxidation and with the degree of conversion at 500°C form the following series:
KSi10CuCe (83.3%) > KSi20CuCe 80.9%) > KSi30CuCe (80.1%) > KSi45CuCe (68.0%).
According to SEM after PEO it can be seen that the surface of the sample KSi20 is comprised of conglomerates
of round-shaped particles with a size up to 30 μm, which after activation, with further formation of the active
catalytic component, are reduced to conglomerates of particles with sizes up to 10 μm.
Aluminum and silicon - the support elements are largely covered by oxides of copper and cerium. XRD showed
that the surface of the sample KSi20 based on phases γ-Al2O3, and Al and Si – the base elements. It is more
efficient to use catalysts obtained on samples of silumin treated in an electrolyte containing 3 g/l of KOH, 30 g/l of
Thus, the optimum conditions are found for obtaining the catalytic coating based on silumin alloy AK12M2, and
a possibility is presented in this research how to improve the internal combustion engine’s environmental
characteristics with the use of catalytic coatings not containing platinum metals.
V.R. Vedruchenko and P.V. Litvinov, [Analysis of requirements of specifications of emissions of harmful
substances] (Omsk, SibADI, 2015). Russian.
R.M. Heck and R.J. Farrauto, Catalytic air pollution control: commercial technology, 35–40 (John Wiley &
Sons. Inc., New York, 2002).
V.R. Vedruchenko, A.L. Ivanov, V.A. Borisov and P.V. Litvinov, Vestnik SibADI, Vol. 51, 61-68 (2016).
M. Ciniviz, M.S. Salman, E. Canlı, H. Kose and O. Solmaz, “Ceramic Coating Applications and Research
Fields for Internal Combustion Engines” in Ceramic Coatings - Applications in Engineering, 195–234 (InTech,
A. Parlak, H. Yaşar and B. Şahin, Energy Conversion and Management 44, 163-175 (2003).
A.R. Osipov, V.A. Borisov, G.I. Suprunov, V.A. Mukhin, A.L. Ivanov, S.S. Sigaeva, E.A. Anoshkina, V.L.
Temerev, A.A. Hohlov and P.G. Tsyrul’nikov, Procedia Engineering 152, 59-66 (2016).
Z. Hu and N. Ladommatos, SAE Technical Paper 952419, (1995).
Z. Hu, SAE Technical Paper 961196, (1996).
W. Zeng and M. Xie, Chemical engineering journal, 139 (2), 380-389 (2008).
J.E. Dec, Proceeds of the combustion institute 32 (2), 2727-2742 (2009).
E.V. Gorskiy, A.M. Livshic and A.V. Peleznev, Industrial laboratory. Materials diagnostics, V. 72, №5, 11-15
A.A. Kuznetsov, V.A. Slepterev and A.V. Peleznev, Omskiy naychniy vestnik. V. 125, №3, 241-246 (2013).
V.S. Rydnev, I.V. Lykiyanchyk and V.G. Kyryaviy, PROT MET PHYS CHEM+ 45 (1), 71-74 (2009).
T.S. Vinogradova, T.A. Tarakanova, B.V. Farmakovskiy, I.V. Ylin and S.E. Sholkin, R.F. Patent No. 2417841
(10 May 2011).
T.S. Vinogradova, V.V. Rybin, E.A. Samodelkin, B.V. Farmakovskiy and M.A. Urkov, R.F. Patent No.
225989 (10 september 2005).