St. Petersburg University
Graduate School of Management
Master in Corporate Finance
DISCLOSURE PRACTICES AND RISKINESS OF
Master’s Thesis by the 2nd year student
Concentration — Master in Corporate Finance
Associate Professor, Irina V. Berezinets
ЗАЯВЛЕНИЕ О САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОМ ХАРАКТЕРЕ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ
ВЫПУСКНОЙ КВАЛИФИКАЦИОННОЙ РАБОТЫ
Я, Зарипов Айдар Ирекович, студент второго курса магистратуры направления
«Менеджмент», заявляю, что в моей магистерской диссертации на тему «Раскрытие
информации и рискованность финансового института», представленной в службу
обеспечения программ магистратуры для последующей передачи в государственную
аттестационную комиссию для публичной защиты, не содержится элементов плагиата.
Все прямые заимствования из печатных и электронных источников, а также из
защищенных ранее выпускных квалификационных работ, кандидатских и докторских
диссертаций имеют соответствующие ссылки.
Мне известно содержание п. 9.7.1 Правил обучения по основным образовательным
программам высшего и среднего профессионального образования в СПбГУ о том, что
«ВКР выполняется индивидуально каждым студентом под руководством назначенного ему
научного руководителя», и п. 51 Устава федерального государственного бюджетного
образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «СанктПетербургский государственный университет» о том, что «студент подлежит отчислению
из Санкт-Петербургского университета за представление курсовой или выпускной
квалификационной работы, выполненной другим лицом (лицами)».
_______________________________________________ (Подпись студента)
___________________25 мая 2016 г._________________ (Дата)
STATEMENT ABOUT THE INDEPENDENT CHARACTER
OF THE MASTER THESIS
I, Aidar Zaripov, second year master student, program «Management», state that my
master thesis on the topic «Disclosure practices and riskiness of financial institution», which is
presented to the Master Office to be submitted to the Official Defense Committee for the public
defense, does not contain any elements of plagiarism.
All direct borrowings from printed and electronic sources, as well as from master theses,
PhD and doctorate theses which were defended earlier, have appropriate references.
I am aware that according to paragraph 9.7.1. of Guidelines for instruction in major
curriculum programs of higher and secondary professional education at St.Petersburg University
«A master thesis must be completed by each of the degree candidates individually under the
supervision of his or her advisor», and according to paragraph 51 of Charter of the Federal State
Institution of Higher Professional Education Saint-Petersburg State University «a student can be
expelled from St. Petersburg University for submitting of the course or graduation qualification
work developed by other person (persons)».
__________________26 May 2016____________________ (Date)
Зарипов Айдар Ирекович
«Раскрытие информации и рискованность финансового
Высшая школа менеджмента
080200 «Менеджмент» (Профиль: Корпоративные финансы)
Описание цели, задач и
Ирина Владимировна Березинец, к.ф.-м.н., доцент
Цель данного исследования заключается в выявлении
взаимосвязи между степенью раскрытия информации и
рискованностью финансового института. Для достижения
цели исследования я тщательно изучил теоретические основы
оценки рисков, роль раскрытия информации на рынке
капитала, а также произвел обзор предыдущих исследований,
связанных с вопросом взаимосвязи между степенью
раскрытия информации и рискованностью финансового
института. Затем мной производилась оценка агрегированного,
систематического, идиосинкратического рисков, а также риска
падения для 66 крупнейших публичных банковских
холдинговых компаний США. Оценка степени раскрытия
производилась путем расчета сконструированного индекса
степени раскрытия информации. Панельно-регрессионный
анализ выявил, наличие обратной взаимосвязи между
степенью раскрытия информации и рискованностью
финансового института. Полученные результаты позволяют
сделать вывод о том, что более высокая степень раскрытия
информации может способствовать снижению
информационной асимметрии и таким образом привести к
сниженной рискованности банковской холдинговой компании.
Раскрытие информации, рискованность финансового
института, агрегированный риск, риск падения,
систематический риск, идиосинкратический риск, асимметрия
Master Student's Name
Master Thesis Title
Main field of study
“Disclosure practices and riskiness of financial institution”
Graduate school of management
080200 “Management” (specialization: Master of Corporate
Irina V. Berezinets, PhD in Physico-mathematical sciences,
Description of the goal,
The goal of the research paper is to investigate the relationship
task and main results
between disclosure and riskiness of a financial institution. In order
to achieve the goal I scrutinized the theoretical grounds of risk
assessment, the role of disclosure in capital markets and conducted
overview of prior research related to the relationship between
disclosure and riskiness of a financial institution. Then for the
sample of 66 publicly listed U.S. bank holding companies (BHCs) I
estimated the aggregated risk, the downside risk, the systemic risk
and the idiosyncratic risk for each BHC. The level of disclosure
was measured by constructed disclosure index. The panel
regression analysis identified that there is negative relationship
between disclosure and riskiness of financial institution. The
obtained results suggests that increased disclosure may help to
mitigate some of information asymmetry and thus lead to
decreased riskiness of bank holding company.
Disclosure, riskiness of financial institution, the aggregated risk,
the downside risk, the systemic risk, the idiosyncratic risk,
Table of contents
Chapter 1. Theoretical grounds of risk assessment....................................................................... 10
1.1. Standard Deviation as a measure of aggregated risk.......................................................... 10
1.2. Downside deviation as a measure of downside risk........................................................... 13
1.3. Beta as a measure of systemic risk..................................................................................... 15
1.4. Idiosyncratic risk and its measurement...............................................................................19
Chapter 2. Corporate disclosure.................................................................................................... 22
2.1. The role of disclosure in capital markets............................................................................ 22
2.2. Regulation of disclosure and financial reporting................................................................ 24
2.3. Relationship between disclosure and different types of risk...............................................27
Chapter 3. Empirical study on relationship between disclosure and risk...................................... 30
3.1. Hypotheses development.................................................................................................... 30
3.2. Methodology....................................................................................................................... 30
3.3. Sample selection and descriptive statistics......................................................................... 34
3.3.1. Sample selection...........................................................................................................34
3.3.2. Descriptive statistics.....................................................................................................35
3.4. Regression results and discussion....................................................................................... 39
3.4.1. Regression results.........................................................................................................39
3.4.2. Discussion.................................................................................................................... 41
List of References.......................................................................................................................... 46
Appendix 1.................................................................................................................................... 49
Appendix 2.................................................................................................................................... 51
Demand for corporate disclosure arises due to the existences of information asymmetry,
when mangers have better information about the company’s performance than investors and
other external stakeholders do, and agency problem, when managers act on their own interest by
putting the shareholders’ interests on the second place. Information and agency problems create
some obstacles for optimal allocation of resources in capital markets. In particular, limited
information, high level of complexity, opacity of banks contribute to mispricing of risks by
Requirements to increase the level of disclosure by managers might be a potential
solution towards mitigating these problems. Hence, the issue of transparency through greater
disclosure has been an important theme discussed by regulatory authorities. Over the past years,
some measures were taken in order to increase the transparency of financial institutions. For
instance, Basel Committee introduced Basel II, Pillar 3 that includes a number of disclosure
requirements aimed to improve the ability of investors to assess the bank’s risk and value.
Whether such initiatives provide any benefits is an open question.
Corporate disclosure reduces information asymmetry between investors and company’s
managers. A number of studies argue that enhanced disclosure and reduced information
asymmetry have some desirable capital market consequences. Among these are efficient
allocation of resources, improved liquidity of the stock, lower risk, development of capital
market, decreased cost of capital. 1
The main goal of this research paper is to investigate the relationship between disclosure
and riskiness of a financial institution. Since higher disclosure reduces the information
asymmetry between the company’s management and investors, then it may in turn affect the
investor’s assessment of bank riskiness.
The review of existing literature reveals that the effect of corporate disclosure on
enterprise risks is ambiguous. Prior empirical researches that investigate this issue provide mixed
evidence. On one hand, a number of studies reveal that the level of disclosure is positively
associated with the stock return volatility (Ross; 1989 and Leuz and Verrecchia; 2000). However
a number of studies argue that higher level of disclosure decrease stock price volatility ( Bushee
and Noe; 2000, Baumann and Nier; 2004, and Kothari, Li, and Short; 2009).
1 See Diamond and Verrecchia (1991), Verrecchia (1994), Botosan (1997) Bushee and Noe (2000), Easley et al.
(2002), Easley and O’Hara (2004), Baumann and Nier (2004), Kothari, Li, and Short (2009), Lambert et al. (2007)
To reach the goal of the paper a number of objectives were set:
scrutinize the grounds of risk assessment, specifically, define different types of
risk and describe methods for their measurement
scrutinize the role of corporate disclosure in capital markets and provide an
overview of prior research devoted to the relationship between disclosure and
different types of risk
conduct empirical study to examine whether there is any relationship between
corporate disclosure and riskiness of financial institution
analyze empirical results and draw conclusions
Based on the analysis of prior research, four hypotheses about the relationship between
disclosure and riskiness of a financial institution were stated. The hypotheses are formulated as
H1. The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower the aggregated
risk in the following year.
H2. The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower the systemic
risk in the following year.
H3. The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower the
idiosyncratic risk in the following year.
H4. The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower the downside
risk in the following year.
For testing these hypotheses a data set on 66 publicly listed United States bank holding
companies over the period 2010-2013 was formed. Panel regression model was employed in
order to analyze the relationship more thoroughly. The results of this empirical research will
enable us to make conclusions about the relationship between disclosure and riskiness of a
financial institution and provide some possible policy implications.
The research is divided into three chapters. The first chapter of this paper concentrates on
theoretical grounds of risk assessments. Particularly we describe different types of risk that
investor face while making investment decisions. As it was already mentioned, we focus on four
types of risk: the aggregated risk, the systemic risk, the idiosyncratic risk and the downside risk.
For each type of risk we provide the definition, describe the approach for their measurement and
review prior research where each risk measure was employed. In the second chapter we discuss
the role of corporate disclosure in capital markets, describe the disclosure regulation in the
United States. Additionally we provide an overview of prior researches related to the analysis of
relationship between disclosure and different types of risk. Chapter 3 is devoted to the empirical
analysis of the relationship between disclosure and different types of risk. The hypotheses,
sample description and the results of the analysis are presented in this chapter. Based on the
results some managerial implications are provided.
Chapter 1. Theoretical grounds of risk assessment
Investing in capital markets is concerned with investor’s decision-making process about
what securities to invest in, how large investments should be and when to make those
investments. In broad sense investments means sacrificing current dollars for future dollars.
Generally investing involves two attributes: risk and time. The sacrifice usually is made in the
present and reward comes later.
First, we need to start with the definition of risk. The literature review reveals that there
are many definitions of risk. Economist Frank Knight in his work “Risk, Uncertainty and Profit”
1921 provided the most popular definition of risk. Frank Knight distinguishes measurable and
unmeasurable uncertainty. He defines only quantifiable uncertainty to be risk. His definition
emphasizes that risk is related to uncertainty and tasks dealing with risk usually require
uncertainty to be quantified.
In order to make wise investments every investor must be able to identify and understand
the types of risk they face and measure those risks accurately. The quantification of risk is crucial
task because based on this investor can make a decision about cancellation of the investment if
the risks are too high compared to the expected financial return. If investor make a decision to go
ahead with investment then his capital must be sufficient to cover the risks it faces.
Investors face different types of risks while making investments. Understanding the types
of investment risk allows an investor to manage risk and optimize outcomes. In this paper I will
focus on four types of risks: the aggregated risk, the downside risk, the systemic risk and the
idiosyncratic or firm-specific risk.
Next sections provide brief overview of these four types of risk. I will provide the
definition of each of those types of risk, describe the methods for measuring them, provide some
relevant examples and make the overview of prior studies in which those risk measures were
1.1. Standard Deviation as a measure of aggregated risk
As it was stated previously majority of securities available for investment are risky due to
uncertain outcomes and it is important to quantify risk accurately for effective investing. One
possible way is to measure historical stock market volatility. By knowing volatilities we can
compare risk and reward between different stocks and other types of securities. This comparison
enables to determine the appropriate strategic asset allocation for an investor, given his
objectives and risk tolerance.
Variance (or Standard deviation) became the most common risk measure that is used by
investors. Markowitz introduced this measurement approach in 1952 in his research paper
Portfolio Selection and this approach is also known as Mean Variance Analysis. His paper is
considered as the origin of the modern portfolio theory approach to investing.
Variance and standard deviation are standard statistical measures of spread. The variance
of the asset return is the expected squared deviation from the expected return (1.1). In other
V [ r ] =E [ ( r−E [ r ] )
is the actual return and
is the expected return. We can get the standard
deviation by taking the square root of the variance (equation 1.2):
σ = E [ ( r− E [ r ] )
The basic problem facing each investor is to determine which particular risky securities to
own. Because a portfolio is a collection of securities, this problem is equivalent to the investor
selecting the optimal portfolio from a set of possible portfolios. Hence, it is often called as the
portfolio selection problem. One solution to this problem was suggested by Harry Markowitz in
his paper that was mentioned previously.
For the Markowitz's approach some assumptions are made. An investor has a particular
sum of money to invest at the present time. This capital will be invested for a particular period of
time, also known as the investor's holding period. At the end of the holding period, the investor
has two possible options. First, he can sell the securities that were bought at the beginning of the
period and then spend money on consumption. Second, he can reinvest the capital by purchasing
new securities. This approach can be viewed as a single-period approach. Investor must decide
which particular securities to buy at the beginning of the period denoted t = 0 and hold them until
the end of the period denoted t = 1.
In making this decision at t = 0, the investor should recognize that security returns (and
thus portfolio returns) over the forthcoming holding period are unknown. Nevertheless, the
investor could estimate the expected (or mean) returns on the various securities under
consideration and then invest in the one with the highest expected return. Markowitz notes that
this would generally be an unwise decision because the typical investor, although wanting
"returns to be high," also wants "returns to be as certain as possible." Thus the investor, in
seeking to both maximize expected return and minimize uncertainty (that is, risk) , has two
conflicting objectives that must be balanced against each other when making the purchase
decision at t = 0. The Markowitz approach for how the investor should go about making this
decision gives full consideration to both of these objectives.
According to Markowitz a useful measure of risk should somehow estimate the extent to
which the actual outcome is likely to diverge from the expected outcome. Standard deviation is a
measure that does this, because it is an estimate of the likely divergence of an actual return from
an expected return. By calculating the standard deviation, investor can get an idea of what is
normal, and what is outside the range of normality. A low standard deviation means that returns
are more likely to be in a narrow range and it is better for investor, in contrary large standard
deviation means that returns are more likely to be scattered.
While standard deviation are indeed useful as a risk measure, there are limitations to its
use. Standard deviation is inappropriate tool for investments with asymmetric return distribution.
When security returns are normally distributed, the normal distribution curve should look
symmetric. Return values should be equally likely to plot around the middle. As we can see from
the diagram (fig. 1.1) below the distribution curve is skewed on the right side of the mean. In this
case skewed distribution of returns might limit the usefulness of the standard deviation as a risk
measure since the returns are unlikely fall in that range.
-7.8 -7.0 -6.2 -5.4 -4.6 -3.8 -3.0 -2.2 -1.4 -0.6 0.2 1.1 1.9 2.7 3.5 4.3 5.1 5.9 6.7 7.5
Figure 1.1 Histogram of Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc. weekly rates of return, 2011-2013
Another issue with standard deviation is that it can reflect only historical volatility. To
gain any knowledge about future volatility, an investor has to make an assumption that future
volatility is represented by the distribution of historical volatility results.
Despite the fact that there are a number of weaknesses associated with relying on the
standard deviation of returns as a measure of the aggregated risk, standard deviation does
provide some insight, and in many circumstances is in fact meaningful.
Demsetz, Saidenberg, and Strahan (1997) in their study for the sample of 367 U.S. bank
holding companies chose the annualized standard deviation of the weekly stock return for a
given bank holding company as main risk measure. Authors justify the choice of this risk
measure by the fact that it incorporates risks associated with all of the BHC’s assets, liabilities
and off-balance sheet positions, and reflects BHC leverage. Sorescu and Spanjol (2008) in their
research paper use total firm risk as one of the facets of firm performance. They justify the
choice by telling that total risk has a systemic component that is of interest only to shareholders,
as well as an idiosyncratic component that affects not only shareholders but also managers and
other firm stakeholders. They focus on total risk because it affects the utility of shareholders and
other stakeholders alike.
1.2. Downside deviation as a measure of downside risk
Downside risk is a financial risk that is associated with losses.2 Put differently, it is a risk
of the actual returns being below the expected returns. For instance, if investor is worried about
losing money he would consider the possibility of getting negative returns risky.
The history of downside risk began with the publication of two papers in 1952. In the first
paper “Portfolio selection” by Markowitz a quantitative framework for measuring portfolio risk
and return was introduced. Markowitz used mean returns, security variances and covariances to
build an efficient frontier where every portfolio on the frontier maximizes the expected return for
a given variance or minimizes the variance for a given expected return.
An economist Andrew Roy in 1952 published the paper called “Safety First and the
Holding of Assets”. In his research author tries to develop the Markowitz’s framework and
suggests the best risk-return tradeoff while constructing the investment portfolio. Roy realized
that downside losses and upside gains are not similar for investors and they care differently about
them. Roy claimed that investor would prefer the investment with the smallest probability of
going below the desired return or target return.
2 Downside risk. Investopedia. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/downsiderisk.asp?
Later Markowitz recognized the importance of this idea. In paper “Portfolio Selection:
Efficient Diversification of Investments” published in 1959 Markowitz assumed that investors
are inclined to minimize downside risk for two reasons. First, only downside risk is relevant to
an investor. Second, security returns may not be normally distributed. For those reasons
downside risk measure would help investor to make right decision when faced with non-normal
security return distributions. Markowitz highlights that when security returns are normally
distributed both downside risk measure as well as standard deviation provide accurate results.
However, in case when the returns distribution is not normal only the downside risk measure
provides the appropriate results.
Hence, standard deviation as a measure of the aggregated risk describes the volatility
around the mean of an investment’s returns. However, this risk measure has several significant
Standard deviation includes both variation above the mean below the mean.
However, this behavior does not represent the risk preferences of majority
investors. Majority investors only consider variation below acceptable return as
Standard deviation assumes that the returns are symmetric. This is not valid for
exotic investments techniques like options or short selling.
Standard deviation assumes that all investors have the same definition of risk. 3
Downside deviation (semi-deviation) is commonly used measurement approach of
downside risk. This approach could be viewed as standard deviation of returns below minimum
accepted returns (MAR). Downside deviation as a risk measure overcomes some disadvantages
of standard deviation, which makes no distinction between upside volatility and downside
volatility. In case of standard deviation both upside and downside volatility equally influence the
calculation of this risk measure. However, downside deviation considers only returns below a
minimum acceptable value and ignores upside deviation.
Downside deviation of returns is defined by the following equation (1.3):
σ = E min [ ( r−c ) , 0 ]
3 "Downside Deviation as a Risk Measure." Invest Excel. 2011. Accessed May 25, 2016.
is the actual return below c . The most frequently used values for c
risk-free rate, a minimum acceptable return of 0.0%, or the mean of the return series itself.
Similar to standard deviation, the lower the downside deviation the better for investors.
However, it is important to look at the downside deviation of a relevant benchmark security or an
appropriate peer group in order to get an understanding of normal value for
The graph below (fig. 1.2) shows a volatile series of Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc. returns
used for the calculation of both standard deviation and downside deviation. Standard deviation
incorporates all of the data points in the series. With downside deviation only the returns below
0.0% are counted.
Weekly rate of return, %
Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
Figure 1.2 Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc. weekly rate of return, 2011 - 2013
In this example of Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc., the downside deviation of 1.59% is lower
than the standard deviation of 2.60%. This means that the downside volatility in this return
stream is lower than the overall volatility. If the reverse was true (where the downside deviation
was higher than the standard deviation), that would mean that the Cullen/Frost Bankers, Inc.
negative weeks are much more volatile than the positive weeks. Both standard deviation and
downside deviation have unique qualities in assessing risk and can be used differently.
Ang, Chen and Xing (2005) in their report investigated whether the cross-section of stock
returns reflects a premium for downside risk. They highlight the importance of downside risk
because investors care differently about downside losses versus upside gains. Agents who place
greater weight on downside risk demand additional compensation for holding stocks with high
sensitivities to downside market movements.
1.3. Beta as a measure of systemic risk
Systemic risk is a difficult concept to define precisely. A recent report by the Group of
Ten countries (2001) on financial sector consolidation defined systemic risk as “the risk that an
event will trigger a loss of economic value or confidence in, and attendant increases in
uncertainty about, a substantial portion of the financial system that is serious enough to quite
probably have significant adverse effects on the real economy.” 4
However, there is a common point in various definitions of systemic risk. Occasionally a
trigger event such as an economic shock or institutional failure takes place that in turn result in a
chain of bad economic consequences. The consequences may range from significant losses to
financial institutions or substantial financial-market price volatility to financial institution or
market failures, and they affect financial institutions, markets, or both. This situation is often
called a domino effect.
The failure of banks and other financial institutions as important sources of capital,
especially in significant numbers, can result in lack of capital available for society and its
increased costs. Increased cost of capital as well as decrease in its availability, are the most
severe consequences of a systemic failure.
A “bank run” could be one of the classic examples of systemic risk. A “bank run” occurs
when a large number of bank’s customers withdraw money from their deposits and bank is not
able to satisfy these demands. This in turn cause other banks or their creditors to fail. This
situation occurs when customers believe that financial institution might become insolvent and
they try to withdraw their monies quickly. Banks normally keeps a small amount of their assets
as cash, they might have insufficient cash to satisfy demands, causing it to default and ultimately
fail. Since banks are closely interconnected financially, specifically they lend to and borrow from
each other, hold deposit balances with each other, and make payments through the interbank
clearing system, this may cause a chain of subsequent failures of the banks.
Previously we discussed how investors use mean variance approach for the optimal
portfolio construction. Now I will discuss the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) of how
assets are priced. The major implication of the CAPM is that the expected return of an asset will
be related to a measure of systemic risk for that asset known as beta. The CAPM looks as
follows (equation 1.4)
4 Report on Consolidation in the Financial Sector. Place of Publication Not Identified: Publisher Not Identified,
E [ r i ] =r f + β i (E [ r m ] −r f )
E [ r i ] – the expected return on the capital asset
– the risk-free rate
β i – beta of the security
E [ r m ] – the expected return of the market
in CAPM is also known as beta coefficient represents the sensitivity of
the security’s returns to the market index’s returns and can be viewed as a measure of systemic
β i term in the CAPM is equal to:
where σ ℑ
denotes the covariance of the returns on stock i and the market index, and
denotes the variance of returns on the market index.
The estimates of beta can be obtained through the market model (equation 1.6). Market
model is an empirical version of CAPM and it captures the relationship between security and
r i=α ℑ+ β ℑ r m +ε i ,m
r i – the return on security i for some given period
r m - the return on market index for the same period
α ℑ – the intercept term
β ℑ – the slope term
ε i , m – the random error term
in a security’s market model measures the sensitivity of the security’s
returns to the market index’s returns and can be viewed as an estimate of systemic risk.
Some interpretations of beta are explained in the table:
Table 1.1 Interpretation of beta value
Value of Beta
β > 0 to 1
Asset movement is in the opposite direction of the market index
Asset movement is uncorrelated to the market index
Asset moves in the same direction as the market index, with less volatility
Asset moves in the same direction as the market index, with the same
Asset moves in the same direction as the market index, with the higher
volatility, and is very sensitive to systemic risk
For example, the beta of United Community Banks, Inc. for 2012 is 1.5 in relation to the
market index, such as the NASDAQ. If the market increases by 2%, then United Community
Banks, Inc. stock price will generally increase by 3%. Likewise, if the market decreases by 2%,
United Community Banks, Inc. stock price generally decreases by 3%. United Community
Banks, Inc. stock price is sensitive to systemic risk, but the risk can be reduced by hedging.
Under modern portfolio theory, investors and other market participants can protect
themselves from risk by diversifying their investments. To the extent risk is negatively
correlated, or uncorrelated, with market risk, the randomly distributed risks of a diversified
investment portfolio “would tend to cancel out, producing a riskless portfolio” (fig. 1.3).
However, you can’t avoid systemic risk, regardless of how much you diversify. Systemic risk
stems from the fact that there are other economy wide perils that threaten all businesses. That is
why stocks have a tendency to move together. And that is why investors are exposed to market
uncertainties, no matter how many stocks they hold.
Figure 1.3 Modern portfolio theory. Source: Investopedia (2006)
For a reasonably well-diversified portfolio, only systemic risk matters. If you have only a
single stock, specific risk is very important; but once you have a portfolio 20 or more stocks,
diversification has reduced specific risk. Therefore, the predominant source of uncertainty for a
diversified investor is that the market will rise or plummet, carrying the investor’s portfolio with
Taking into account significant interconnection among financial market participants and
institutions, systemic risk is quite important for researchers. Particularly Lambert (2007) uses
nondiversifiable or systemic risk in his research where he examines whether and how accounting
information about a firm manifests in its cost of capital, despite the forces of diversification.
Lambert claims that most analytical models in accounting examine the role of information in
single-firm settings. While this literature yields many useful insights, its applicability to cost of
capital issues is limited. In single-firm settings, firm-specific variance is priced because there are
no alternative securities that would allow investors to diversify idiosyncratic risk.
1.4. Idiosyncratic risk and its measurement
The idiosyncratic or firm-specific risk is unpredictable variability in the earnings of the
issuing firm that is attributable to events that are specific to that firm, rather than to systemic
macroeconomic events. Idiosyncratic risk is predominant within any organization because of
influence of internal factors. These factors usually can be controlled by organization. It is a micro
in nature as it affects only a particular organization. This type of risk is can be managed and or
organization can take particular actions to reduce the effect of idiosyncratic risk. 6
According to the market model, the total risk of any security i, measured by its variance
and denoted σ 2i , consists of two parts: idiosyncratic risk and systemic risk. That is, total risk
equals the following:
σ i = β ℑ σ m +σ εi
where σ 2m
denotes the variance of returns on the market index. Thus
systemic risk of security i, and σ 2εi
β ℑ σm
denotes the idiosyncratic risk of security i as measured by
the variance of the random error term, appearing in equation 1.7.
5 Brealey, Richard A., and Stewart C. Myers. Principles of Corporate Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
6 Bradfield, James. Introduction to the Economics of Financial Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
At this point, it might be interesting: why divide risk into two parts. For the investor, it
would seem that risk is risk – whatever it source. Systemic risk is related to the beta of the
company. According to CAPM, companies with larger betas will have larger expected returns.
However, idiosyncratic risk is not related to the beta. There is no reason why companies with
higher idiosyncratic risk should have higher expected returns. Thus according to the CAPM,
investors are rewarded for bearing systemic risk but not for bearing idiosyncratic risk.
Since this research is related to financial institutions let’s have a look at the main sources
of idiosyncratic risk in the banking sector (fig. 1.4):
Figure 1.4 Types of idiosyncratic risk in banking sector. Source: Investopedia (2007)
Credit risk is the potential loss a bank would suffer if a bank borrower, also known as the
counterparty, fails to meet its obligations— pay interest on the loan and repay the amount
borrowed— in accordance with agreed terms. Credit risk is the single largest risk most banks
face and arises from the possibility that loans or bonds held by a bank will not be repaid either
partially or fully. Credit risk is often synonymous with default risk. 7
For instance, the large Swiss bank UBS incurred huge losses in value of loans that were
made to high-risk borrowers. As a result, the bank announced a loss of $ 10 billion. Most of highrisk borrowers were not able to repay their loans, at the same time the complex models used by
Swiss bank UBS to predict the likelihood of credit losses were incorrect. There are many similar
cases when major banks all over the world incur losses due to assessing the probability of default
on mortgage payments incorrectly.
Market risk is the risk of loss resulting from changes in market prices that is due to changes
in foreign exchange rates, interest rates, commodities and equity prices. The major components
of market risk are:
7Apostolik, Richard, Christopher Donohue, and Peter Went. Foundations of Banking Risk: An Overview of Banking,
Banking Risks, and Risk-based Banking Regulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2009. p. 14-15
Interest rate risk is the potential loss due to movements in interest rates. This risk
arises because bank assets (loans and bonds) usually have a significantly longer
maturity than bank liabilities (deposits).
Equity risk is the potential loss due to an adverse change in the price of stock.
Foreign exchange risk is the risk that the value of the bank’s assets or liabilities
changes due to currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Commodity risk is the potential loss due to an adverse change in commodity prices 8.
Operational risk is the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes,
people and systems or from external events. This definition includes legal risk, but excludes
strategic and reputational risk. 9
An example of operational risk could be the collapse of Baring Brothers and Co. Ltd.
after incurring losses of £ 827 million in 1995. The main reason of bank’s collapse was the
failure of its internal control processes and procedures. Bank’s traders was able to authorize their
trading activities and book them into the bank’s systems without any supervision. Only after the
trades started to lose significant amounts of money and it was no longer possible for the trader to
keep the trades and the losses secret the trader’s supervisors were alerted.
The idiosyncratic risk is also important for researchers for some reasons. Campbell
(2001) received the following result - the level of average stock return volatility mostly
attributable to idiosyncratic volatility has increased considerably from 1962 to 1997 in the
United States. At the same time Morck (2000) found that the ratio of idiosyncratic risk to
systemic risk has surged over time in the United States. Motivated by results of Campbell
Rajgopal and Venkatachalam (2010) focused on the idiosyncratic risk while investigating
relationship between quality of accounting information and idiosyncratic risk.
8Apostolik, Richard, Christopher Donohue, and Peter Went. Foundations of Banking Risk: An Overview of Banking,
Banking Risks, and Risk-based Banking Regulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2009. p. 15-18
9Apostolik, Richard, Christopher Donohue, and Peter Went. Foundations of Banking Risk: An Overview of
Banking, Banking Risks, and Risk-based Banking Regulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2009. p. 18-19
Chapter 2. Corporate disclosure
2.1. The role of disclosure in capital markets
Corporate disclosure is a key element for the functioning of capital markets. The optimal
allocation of savings to investment opportunities is one of the most crucial issues that every
economy faces. Typically, there are many companies that want to attract financial resources to
fund their activities as well as savers that would like to allocate their capital with the expectation
of a future financial return. However, there are at least two reason that prevent both parties to
make business with each other and match savings with investment opportunities. First, there is so
called information problem, when companies have better information about business investment
opportunities than investors do. Second is the agency problem, when there is a conflict of interest
between the needs of the investors and the needs of the company’s management.
The information problem arises when investors do not have the same degree of
information about company’s activities necessary to make a wise investment decision. The
problem of information asymmetry between the buyer and seller of an investment also called
“lemons” problem was discussed by a 1970 research paper by economist George Akerlof. The
“lemons” problem may potentially lead to ineffective functioning of the capital market or even to
its failure. For example, let’s think about the situation where half of banks perform significantly
riskier activities than the other half. Investors are rational and make their investment decisions
based on the information that they possess. If investors can not distinguish the riskiness of the
investment opportunities they will assess it at the average level. Hence, if the “lemons” problem
exists in the economy then the capital market will reasonably undervalue some good investments
opportunities and overvalue some bad investment opportunities relative to the information
available to investors.10
One way to mitigate the “lemons” problem is solid, timely, and granular information
disclosure. Higher disclosure decreases the level of information asymmetries between the bank
management and investors. This in turn may affect investors' assessment of the riskiness of the
firm and reduce the diversity of judgments about the true value of the firm.
Better disclosure can support market discipline and increase financial stability in noncrisis times. Good information can help investors to price risks more accurately and this in turn
can act as a disciplining force on banks. If banks are taking too much risks and are not able to
10Akerlof, George A. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism." The Quarterly
Journal of Economics 84, no. 3 (1970): 488.
provide an attractive trade-off between risks and returns then investors are less likely to provide
funding to those banks. Thus, managers of the bank will carefully ponder the risk-taking
decisions. This market discipline mechanism ensure investors that managers act in their interests.
Therefore providing better information may reduce the probability of future financial crisis.
The financial crisis of 2007-2009 could be a good example of information asymmetry
problem. Introduction of new types of securities increased the level of information asymmetry in
financial markets. Due to complexity of new instruments and the lack of transparency, it was a
complicated task for investors to assess securitized assets properly. Structured products, such as
collateralized debt obligations (CDOs), were created from diversified portfolios of mortgages
and other types of assets, such as corporate bonds, credit cards, and auto loans. This information
problem resulted in market freezes since majority of market participants believed that most
securities in the market were of low quality. For example, during the crisis, the demand for assetbacked securities (ABS) in the United States collapsed from over $ 500 billion in 2007 to $
20 billion in 2009.11
The agency problem comes out because usually investors that provide capital to the
companies typically are not supposed to play an active role in its management and that
responsibility is delegated to the company’s management. Consequently, once investors have
invested their funds in a company, the management has an incentive to make decisions in their
own interest. For example, if investors acquire an equity stake in a company, the management
can use those funds to acquire perquisites, pay excessive compensation, or make investment or
operating decisions that are harmful to the interests of outside investors (Jensen and Meckling,
The possible solution to the agency problem may be the optimal contracts between
management and investors, such as compensation agreements and debt contracts aimed to adjust
the interests of the company’s managers with interests of outside stakeholders. These contracts
often require company’s management to provide relevant information that allows investors to
check compliance with contractual agreements and to assess whether managers have managed
the company’s resources in the interests of company’s investors.
The case of well-known US telecommunication corporation WorldCom can be a good
example of agency problem that was not resolved by mean of corporate disclosure. In 2001
WorldCom CEO Bernard Ebbers managed to take from the company more than $ 400 million in
loans at the favorable interest rate of 2.15 percent. The details of this transaction were not
11 Kirabaeva Kirabaeva. Adverse Selection and Financial Crises. Working paper. Bank of Ca Nada Review, 2010.
presented in company’s annual report and they did not come out until WorldCom accounting
2.2. Regulation of disclosure and financial reporting
There are sufficient number of regulations governing corporate disclosure and reporting
in each country all over the globe. For instance, in the United States every company accessing
capital markets must follow Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rules concerning
corporate disclosure. All disclosure rules and requirements set by SEC have statutory authority,
and some amendments to these regulations could be implemented over time. For example, after
introduction of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the summer of 2002, significant amendments were
made to regulations governing corporate disclosure in the United States. This act came out
because of unexpected bankruptcy of huge energy-trading company Enron.
The primary goal of SEC regulations is to require publicly owned companies to
disclosure certain types of information to the SEC and to the company's stockholders. Moreover,
when company is going to issue new securities, such as stocks and bonds, the SEC’s disclosure
rules require the provision of relevant information about company’s business and financial
information to potential investors. The system of mandatory disclosure is also called the
integrated disclosure system. In order to make disclosure system less burdensome for companies
SEC standardized various forms and decreased the level of variation in disclosure rules to the
SEC and company’s investors.
According to SEC disclosure requirements, publicly owned companies must provide two
annual reports, one for the Securities and Exchange Commission and another for company’s
shareholders. The annual report prepared for SEC is called Form 10-K and the content of this
form is strictly regulated by federal statutes. However, the information provided in annual reports
for shareholders was not strictly governed. Over the years, the SEC managed to get more
influence on the annual reports’ content.
In the annual reports for shareholders and potential investors companies must include
certified financial statements and other specific items. The content of financial statements
comprises two-year audited balance sheet and a three-year audited statement of income and cash
flows. Additionally annual reports must contain five years of selected financial data, including
income or loss from continuing operations, net sales or operating revenues, total assets, long12 Bebchuk, Lucian Arye, and Jesse M. Fried. "Executive Compensation as an Agency Problem." SSRN Electronic
Journal SSRN Journal.
term obligations and redeemable preferred stock, and cash dividends declared per common
Specifically for banking industry The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS)
issued the document Basel II that is a global, voluntary regulatory framework on bank capital
adequacy, market liquidity risk, and stress testing. The BCBS recognizes market discipline as a
key objective and claims that the provision of meaningful information about common key risk
metrics to market participants is a fundamental tenet of a sound banking system. It reduces
information asymmetry and helps promote comparability of banks’ risk profiles within and
The primary goal of Pillar 3 of the Basel II framework is to encourage market discipline
through regulatory disclosure rules. Disclosure requirements enable market participants to obtain
important information of the company’s capital, risk assessment processes, risk exposures and
hence the capital adequacy of the institution. The availability of this information in turn promote
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has formulated five guiding principles for
banks’ Pillar 3 risk disclosures. These principles will enable market participants to understand
the bank’s business and its risks clearly. The principles are as follows:
1. Disclosures should be clear. All information provided through corporate
disclosure should be displayed in a way that company’s stakeholder can easily
understand it. Important points in disclosure should be highlighted. Additionally
if report contain some complex issues, they should be explained in simple
language. Related risk information should be presented together.
2. Disclosures should be comprehensive. Disclosure should provide information
about bank’s main activities, all major risks incorporated in those activities, some
qualitative and quantitative information on how bank identifies, measures and
manages those risks.
All should be described in a way that bank’s key
stakeholders could better understand bank’s risk tolerance.
3. Disclosures should be meaningful to user. The most important current and
emerging risks and how they are managed should be highlighted in the disclosure.
Managers should provide relevant references to balance sheet and income
13 "SEC Disclosure Laws and Regulations." Inc. Accessed May 10, 2016. http://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/secdisclosure-laws-and-regulations.html.
statement. The information that is not actual and may mislead users must be
4. Disclosures should be consistent over time. According to this principle,
disclosure should be consistent over time in order to enable main users of
disclosure to spot main trends in a bank’s risk profile across all significant aspects
of its business.
5. Disclosures should be comparable across banks. The format of disclosure
presentation should enable the market participants to conduct meaningful
comparisons of business activities, risk management and risks between different
Moreover, in order to achieve an appropriate level of bank transparency and to help users
of disclosure to assess bank’s risks correctly, The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision in its
report “Enhancing bank transparency” identified the following six categories of information that
should be provided in clear manner and appropriately detailed.
1. Financial performance. The bank need to provide information about its
profitability for several periods. This type of information will help market
participants and regulators to assess the effectiveness of usage of bank’s
resources, changes in the future financial performance and ability of bank to repay
its liabilities and deposits.
2. Financial position (including capital, solvency and liquidity). This category of
information generally includes balance sheet of the bank that shows different
types of assets, liabilities and sources of equity capital. These will help market
participants and regulators to assess the ability of bank to meet its liabilities and
other financial commitments.
3. Risk management strategies and practices. Disclosure should include the
description of bank’s management approach in managing risks, particularly, the
information about how risks arise, how they are managed and controlled. This
category might be helpful in assessing the current condition of the bank, its future
performance and the effectiveness of bank’s management.
4. Risk exposures (including credit risk, market risk, liquidity risk, and
operational, legal and other risks). Banks should provide some quantified
14 Revised Pillar 3 Disclosure Requirements Standards. Basel: Bank for Internat. Settlements, 2015.
information about potential losses of its activities. This information reflect the
financial strengths of the bank as well as its ability to perform in stress periods.
5. Accounting policies. Disclosure should provide information on different
accounting policies employed by the bank. It will help to understand how
different items are measured and to interpret information properly.
6. Basic business, management and corporate governance information. This
category includes basic information about bank’s business and management.
Disclosure on these is important because it helps to evaluate the financial
performance, financial position, risk management policies, risk exposure in the
context of bank’s business.15
Thus, The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision considers consistent corporate
disclosure as the key element in supporting stable financial system. In the next section we will
look at prior researches that investigated the consequences of disclosure in capital markets,
particularly we will focus on the influence of disclosure on enterprise risks.
2.3. Relationship between disclosure and different types of risk
Prior studies examined the capital market consequences of managers’ corporate
disclosure decisions. These studies identify following affects for companies that make extensive
voluntary disclosures: improved liquidity of the stock, lower risk, decreased cost of capital,
increased following by financial analysts. 16
We will focus on the supposed impact of voluntary disclosure on different types of risks
discussed earlier. As described in chapter 1 there are number of risks such as the aggregated risk,
the systemic risk, the idiosyncratic risk and the downside risk.
There are a number of research papers that have examined the relationship between these
risk measures and disclosure. Prior empirical research provides mixed evidence on the impact of
disclosure on stock price volatility or the aggregated risk. On one hand, a number of studies
reveal that the level of disclosure is positively associated with the stock return volatility. For
instance, Lang and Lundholm (1993) on the basis of the analysis of U.S. companies concluded
that the corporate disclosure is positively associated with company’s stock return volatility. They
used data from the Report of the Financial Analysts Federation Corporate Information
15 Kraus, Susan. Enhancing Bank Transparency: Public Disclosure and Supervisory Information That Promote
Safety and Soundness in Banking Systems. Basle: Basle Committee on Banking Supervision, 1998.
16 See Diamond and Verrecchia (1991), Verrecchia (1994), Botosan (1997) Bushee and Noe (2000), Easley et al.
(2002), Easley and O’Hara (2004), Baumann and Nier (2004), Kothari, Li, and Short (2009), Lambert et al. (2007)
Committee as a measure of the informativeness of a firm’s disclosure policy. A study conducted
by Leuz and Verrecchia (2000) supported this result. Based on the sample of German firms,
authors found that the change of reporting from German to U.S. generally accepted accounting
principles, which is interpreted as an increase in disclosure, increased the overall volatility.
On the contrary, some studies provide evidence that disclosure decreases stock price
For example, Bushee and Noe (2000) in their study concluded that enhanced
disclosure reduce the volatility of a firm's stock price. It is explained by the fact that for the
sample U.S. companies more forthcoming disclosure attract quasi-indexers. This institution
exhibits long investment horizons and low portfolio turnover. Attracting this type of institution
helps reduce the volatility of a firm's stock price. Authors measured disclosure using the annual
ranking of corporate disclosure practices published by the Association for Investment and
Management Research (AIMR). Additional support to this finding is provided by Baumann and
Nier (2004). They found that banks that disclose more information on key items of disclosure
show lower measures of stock volatility than do banks that disclose less information. The study
was conducted on the basis of 600 banks across thirty-one countries over the period 1993-2000.
Recently, a new stream of literature has emerged to investigate the impact of information
quality on both idiosyncratic risk and systemic risk. Lambert (2007) examined how the quality of
a firm’s accounting information affects its cost of capital. He demonstrated that the quality of
accounting information influences a firm’s cost of capital directly by affecting market
participants’ perceptions about the distribution of future cash flows. The direct effect occurs
because the quality of disclosures affects the assessed covariance between a firm’s cash flow and
other firms’ cash flows that is systemic risk. These effects entirely consistent with the CAPM.
That is, the information effects are fully captured by an appropriately specified forward-looking
beta and the market wide premium for risk. Ashbaugh-Skaife (2009) investigated whether
disclose of internal control deficiencies by U.S. firms results in higher systemic risk, higher
idiosyncratic risk, and higher cost of equity relative to firms with effective internal controls. In
cross-sectional tests, authors found that firms with internal control deficiencies have significantly
higher betas, idiosyncratic risk, and cost of equity capital relative to firms not reporting internal
control deficiencies. In addition, Rajgopal and Venkatachalam (2010) on the sample of firms
from NYSE, AMEX and NASDAQ explored whether financial reporting quality has any impact
on idiosyncratic volatility. They used earnings quality as proxies for financial reporting quality.
The main finding of the research is that worsening earnings quality is positively associated with
rising return volatility over the 40-year period.
There are a few number of research studies that investigates the relationship between the
level of disclosure and the downside risk. Ederington and Lee (1996) investigated the impact of
information releases on the downside risk in the Deutschemark market. As a measure of
downside risk authors employed implied standard deviation from option market. On one hand,
authors found that scheduled information releases lead to decrease in the implied standard
deviation. On the other hand, unscheduled information announcements cause an increase in the
implied standard deviation. Additionally Rogers, Skinner, and Van Buskirk (2009) examined
how disclosure of management earnings forecasts influences uncertainty. Similar to Ederington
and Lee they measured downside risk by using implied standard deviation derived from equity
option prices. Authors revealed that disclosure of management earnings forecasts increases the
short-run volatility and at the same time decreases long-run volatility.
Chapter 3. Empirical study on relationship between disclosure and risk
3.1. Hypotheses development
In the first chapter we discussed different types of risk that investors typically face while
making investments in capital markets.
In chapter 2 the role of disclosure in capital markets and the relationship between
disclosure and different types of enterprise risks were discussed. As it was stated previously the
main role of disclosure is to reduce information asymmetry between managers, analysts and
investors as well as well as to resolve the agency problem. As argued above, lowering
information asymmetry is viewed as desirable because it affects investors' assessment of the
riskiness of the firm. However, as we can see from the literature review the relationship between
disclosure and enterprise risks is ambiguous.
The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the presence and the nature of the
relationship between disclosure and different types of risk.
To investigate the influence of disclosure on different enterprise risks econometric
analysis has been selected.
Based on the examination of different studies devoted to the chosen topic the following
research hypotheses have been formulated.
Hypothesis H1: The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower
the aggregated risk in the following year.
Hypothesis H2: The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower
the systemic risk in the following year.
Hypothesis H3: The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower
the idiosyncratic risk in the following year.
Hypothesis H4: The higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower
the downside risk in the following year.
In order to test the main hypothesis I employ the panel regression models:
yaggrisk i , t +1= β 0 + β 1∗disc i , t +k∗X i , t +ε i ,t
sysrisk i ,t +1 = β0 + β1∗disc i ,t +k∗X i ,t +ε i ,t
yidiorisk i , t +1= β 0 + β 1∗disc i , t +k∗X i , t +ε i ,t
ydownrisk i , t +1= β 0 + β 1∗disc i , t +k∗X i , t +ε i ,t
yaggrisk i , t +1 – the aggregated risk
sysrisk i ,t +1 – the systemic risk
yidiorisk i , t +1 – the idiosyncratic risk
ydownrisk i , t +1 – the downside risk
β 1 - the coefficient on disclosure
- the aggregated disclosure index
disc i , t
X i ,t
εi , t
– the vector of coefficients
- the vector of control variables
- random error term
The dependent variables comprise four types of risk that were discussed in the first
chapter: the aggregated risk, the systemic risk, the idiosyncratic risk and the downside risk. The
calculation and motivation for these risks are described below in more detail.
The first type of risk is the aggregated risk ( yaggrisk i , t +1 ¿ . I estimate the aggregated
risk as the standard deviation of a stock market asset’s weekly returns. The standard deviation
was calculated using the equation 3.5:
w i ,t
si ,t =
r i , w−ŕ i )
w i ,t −1 w =1
where w i ,t
is the number of weeks available in year t for bank i; r i , w is the equity return of
bank i in week w, ŕ i is the expected equity return of bank i.
I estimate the idiosyncratic risk ( yidiorisk i , t +1 ) as well as the systemic risk (
sysrisk i ,t +1 ) from the following market model (equation 3.6):
r i ,t −r f , t =α i +β i (r m ,t −r f , t )+ ε i , t
where r i ,t
is the weekly stock return for bank holding company i in week t.
weekly return from holding a 3-month risk-free Treasury-bill, r m, t
NYSE or NASDAQ market index in week t,
εi , t
slope term, and
is the weekly return for
is the intercept term,
(or beta) is the
is an random error term. According to the market model, the total risk of
any security consists of two parts: systemic risk and idiosyncratic risk. The slope term
β i in a
security’s market model measures the sensitivity of the security’s returns to the market index
returns and can be viewed as an estimate of systemic risk. Since I assume that security market
line was constant over time, meaning that it was not changing during the year, then I can estimate
the historical beta for a security simply by examining the historical relationship between the
returns on the security and on market index. The random error term
εi , t
shows that the market
model does not explain security returns perfectly. The standard deviation of the random error
term can be viewed as an estimate of the historical idiosyncratic risk of security. I run the market
model for each bank holding company in my sample.
The downside risk ( ydownrisk i , t +1 ) for a BHC calculated as downside deviation of a
stock market asset’s weekly returns below minimum accepted returns (equation 3.7).
min (¿¿ i, w−c , 0)
w i , t−1 w=1
sd i ,t = √ ¿
w i ,t
is the number of weeks available in year t for bank i; r i , w is the equity return of
bank i in week w,
is minimum accepted return which is equal 0.0% for the purpose of this
Then the aggregated risk, the idiosyncratic risk and the downside risk are annualized for
each bank holding company.
For calculating the aggregated disclosure index ( disc i , t ), I employed method proposed
by prior research. In the Banks’ disclosure and financial stability report by Rhiannon Sowerbutts,
Peter Zimmerman and Ilknur Zer (2013) authors identified four main groups to assess the
quantitative information that financial institution provides in its disclosure: liquidity risk, group
structure, intra-annual information and spillover risk. All categories comprise 14 sub-indices. For
each sub-index the score 1 is given when BCH provides the relevant information in its 10-K
statements, annual, or proxy reports for a particular year. However, we need to mention that the
scores assigned to sub-indices do not represent the quality judgment of that disclosure.
I calculate the aggregated disclosure score by using the equation 3.8.
disc i , t =α 1 LIQi , t +α 2 GRP STRi ,t +α 3 INTRA i ,t +α 4 SPIL i ,t
LIQ i , t
– the disclosure score on liquidity risk
GRP STRi ,t
– the disclosure score on group structure
INTRA i , t
– the disclosure score on intra-annual information
SPILi , t
– the disclosure score on spillover risk
α1 , α2 , α3 , α4
– the weights of disclosure categories
The first set of sub-indices
LIQ i , t
captures the information on BCH liquidity risk.
Basically the liquidity risk relates to the possibility that financial institution may not be able to
raise new funds and repay its current creditors. It is argued that banks that rely more on shortterm and non-local currency funding are more inclined to suffer in period of stress in financial
markets. Therefore, in this category I assess whether particular BCH disclose information on the
breakdown of liabilities by term and different currencies. After that, I looked for the liquidity
ratios and level or ratio of high-quality unencumbered assets.
The second main category is group structure information ( GRP STRi ,t ). This type of
information helps investors to assess the riskiness of particular BHC segment due to the fact the
failure of one segment may cause the systemic failure of bank holding company as a whole. In
case of complex large financial groups the disclosure of information related to subsidiaries is not
mandatory. Therefore, here I search for balance sheets and risk ratios of BHC’s subsidiaries.
Moreover, I focus on the same information related to BHC main segments such as the card
services, derivatives desk, and insurance services.
Intra-annual information ( INTRA i , t ) is the next crucial area since it provides the
broader view of risks. End-of-year snapshot of balance sheet is not enough in assessing the risk
due to possible volatility of BHC’s activity during the reporting period. Hence, I search for the
detailed annual average figures of balance sheet items, balance sheet items provided on quarterly
basis, and different risk ratios.
Fourth category is information on spillover risk ( SPILi , t ) that can help investors to
assess the network risk of risk spillover within the financial system, and the risk of explicit or
implicit exposures to off-balance sheet entities. Therefore, I looked whether a bank holding
company in its report provides the detailed breakdown of the off-balance sheet items and
maximum loss exposure to special purpose vehicles (or variable interest entities).
In order to obtain the weights of described disclosure categories I use principal
component analysis (PCA). The weights for each bank holding company i at year t are obtained
from the equation 3.9:
α 1,2,3,4 =PCA( LIQ b ,t ,GRP STRb ,t , INTRA b ,t , SPILb ,t )
X i ,t , are motivated from the existing literature and are described as
follows. The size of the bank holding company (sizeit) is included as a control variable because
prior research suggest that larger institutions tend to be less risky (Barrell, Davis, Fic, and Karim;
2010, Hermalin and Weisbach; 2012). Therefore, we expect the coefficient to be negative. The
size of BHC represents the natural logarithm of the year-ended total market capitalization. The
capital buffer of a BHC (capbufit) calculated as the ratio of bank’s equity capital to total
liabilities at the fiscal year-end. Since institutions with higher capital buffer tend to be less risky I
expect the coefficient to be negative (Baumann and Nier; 2003). The non-performing loans ratio
(nplit) is calculated as the sum of loans past due 90 days or more and non-accrual loans as a
proportion of bank’s total assets. Institutions with higher level of non-performing loans result in
higher uncertainty therefore I expect the coefficient to be positive. Return on equity ( roeit)
calculated as the ratio of the net income to total book equity. We expect the positive relationship
between return on equity and the riskiness of financial institution. Finally, I include the level of
deposits (depoit) which is calculated as the natural logarithm of total deposits. Since higher level
of deposits is associated with banks performing riskier activities, we expect the sign to be
positive. The description of variables used in the analysis presented in the Appendix 2.
3.3. Sample selection and descriptive statistics
3.3.1. Sample selection
The sample comprises the 66 largest publicly traded United States bank holding
companies ranked by asset value at the end of 2010 for the period 2010-2013. The list of BHCs
are provided in the Appendix 1. The focus of this study on bank holding companies is due to
several reasons. First, they provide 10-K statements, annual reports to the Securities and
Exchange Commission. All these periodic reports are freely available through SEC-Edgar
system. After that, U.S. bank holding companies are supervised by the Federal Reserve and the
FDIC. As a result, all BHCs have the same requirements for compulsory disclosures, which is
important to identify voluntary disclosures. Finally, a typical bank holding company has a
complex structure. Usually a BHC performs a wide range of financial activities and consist of
several independent subsidiaries. This in turn increase the usefulness of BHCs’ periodic reports
for investors because disclosure enables correctly identify and assess risks.
Multiple sources of information were employed to form the data set. The information
related to the disclosure index was collected from the annual reports and 10-K statements of
bank holding companies. All reports were obtained from SEC-Edgar system.
In order to estimate the four risk measures such as the aggregated risk, the systemic risk,
the idiosyncratic risk and the downside risk for a BHC for a given date, I used the stock prices
from NASDAQ and NYSE stock markets official web sites.
I obtained data on market capitalization, bid and ask prices of the equity, equity capital,
total liabilities, total assets, total deposits, non-performing loans and return on equity for each
BHC from Thomson Reuters Datastream. The risk free rates were obtained from U.S.
Department of the treasury official web site.
3.3.2. Descriptive statistics
Let us start with the analysis of results of the descriptive statistics for dependent variables
presented in the table 3.1.
yaggrisk i , t +1 0,28
sysrisk i ,t +1
ydownrisk i , t +1 0,15
yidiorisk i , t +1
Table 3.1 Descriptive statistics of dependent variables
The annualized aggregated risk ( yaggrisk i , t +1 ), is equal 28% on average which is
slightly lower than that of the prior evidence – 30% and 36% for U.S. bank holding companies
(Demsetz, Saidenberg, and Strahan; 1997 and Nier and Baumann; 2006 respectively). The
minimum aggregated risk value is 11% and increases up to 73%. The systemic risk (
sysrisk i ,t +1 ) measured as a bank’s beta has an annual mean of 1.10. Its value ranges from 0.04
to 2.23 with standard deviation of 0.33. Results indicate that the average annualized idiosyncratic
volatility ( yidiorisk i , t +1 ) is about 21% and ranges from 10% to 72%. Finally, the annualized
downside risk ( ydownrisk i , t +1 ) has a mean of 15%. The minimum downside risk value is 3%
and increases up to 56%. For some cases, we can observe quite low level of the systemic risk
0.04 and the downside risk 3%, this can be explained by the fact that some bank holding
companies were delisted at some point of the year and their stocks were not traded at the capital
Comparative descriptive statistics for dependent variables are presented in Table 3.2. The
test for equality of means suggests that for all dependent variables means are statistically
different from each other. In overall, we can see clear downside trend and this trend is in line
with U.S. economic environment of 2011-2013. The period 2011-2013 can be characterized as
the beginning of U.S economy recovery after the recession of 2007 to 2009.
yaggrisk i , t +1
sysrisk i ,t +1
yidiorisk i , t +1
ydownrisk i , t +1
Table 3.2 Comparison of means of dependent variables in 2011-2013
Let us move to the analysis of the descriptive statistics of the independent variable
reflecting the level of disclosure presented in the table 3.3. Results indicate that the aggregated
disclosure index is about 1.04 and ranges from 0.10 to 3.34.
Table 3.3 Descriptive statistics of independent variable
Table 3.4 represents the descriptive statistics for all sub-indices of the disclosure index.
The number of banks that disclosure a particular information throughout the sample period, the
number of banks that never disclosure a particular information throughout the whole period,
average score as well as standard deviation are presented in the table. The majority of U.S. bank
holding companies disclose funding breakdown by term, risk ratios of subsidiaries and average
balance sheet figure with an average score close to 1. However currency breakdown of funding
sources, balance sheets of subsidiaries as well as risk ratios on quarterly basis have relatively
Table 3.4 Descriptive statistics of Disclosure sub-indices
L1: term breakdown
L2: currency breakdown
L3: liquidity ratio
L4: unencumbered assets
G1: B/S info of subsidiaries
G2: B/S info of sectors/sub-units
G3: risk ratios of subsidiaries
G4: risk ratios of sectors/sub-units
I1: average B/S figures
I2: quarterly B/S figures
I3: risk ratios on quarterly basis
S1: credit exposure to financial
S2: off-balance sheet items
S3: exposure to SPEs
Figure 3.1 presents scores for the main categories and aggregated disclosure index
averaged through all bank holding companies. As we can see there is an improvement in
aggregated disclosure index throughout the sample period that is mainly due to increased score
in liquidity disclosure as well as group structure information. On the other hand spillover risk
and intra-annual information are stable throughout 3 years period. Liquidity disclosure has the
highest average score while intra-annual information disclosure has the lowest score among four
Figure 3.1 Aggregated disclosure score and sub-indices
Let us move to the descriptive statistics of control variables that reflect general
characteristics of the company. The results are presented in the table 3.5.
Table 3.5 Descriptive statistics of independent variable
As we can infer from the table the average size of the bank holding companies ( sizeit)
measured as the natural logarithm of market capitalization is equal to 14.923. That is $ 2 987
Capital buffer (capbufit) is mandatory capital that financial institutions are required to
hold in addition to other minimum capital requirements. The average capital buffer ratio across
the sample equals 14.9% and the value ranges from 1.2% to 261.2%. For some bank holding
companies equity capital exceeds its total liabilities therefore capital buffer ratio exceeds 100%.
The average non-performing loans ratio (nplit) measured as the bank’s non-performing
loans as a proportion of its total assets is equal to 2%. The value ranges from 1% to 9%.
The return on equity (roeit) that represents the amount of net income returned as a
percentage of shareholders equity equals on average 5.2%. The value ranges from -375.8% to
62.2%. We observe bank holding companies with huge negative return on equity, that is due to
huge losses incurred by bank holding companies in some years.
The average amount of the bank holding companies’ deposits ( depoit) measured as the
natural logarithm of total deposits is equal to 16.84. That is $ 20 583 million.
Finally, I divided all bank holding companies into two groups: high-disclosed and lowdisclosed bank holding companies. Into high-disclosed group all BHC with aggregated
disclosure index above median in a particular year are included and on the contrary into lowdisclosed group all BHC with aggregated disclosure index below median. Then I employed the
test for comparison of means between these two groups. The results are presented in the table
3.6. The results show that BHCs disclosing more information related to their risk profiles have
higher systemic risk in the following year. After that BHC in high-disclosed group are larger in
size. This may be explained by the fact that larger bank holding companies are more complicated
in structure and they are involved in wide range of riskier non-banking activities. Thus, they
have higher incentives to provide more information compared to the smaller bank holding
companies. Additionally, high-disclosed bank holding companies have higher level of deposits.
Table 3.6 Comparison of high and low disclosed Bank holding companies
3.4. Regression results and discussion
3.4.1. Regression results
This section examines whether disclosure has any impact on enterprise risks. The
empirical analysis proceeds as follows. For each dependent variable, I start with the baseline
specification, which only contains key control variables characterizing the size of the financial
institution, the volatility of the equity, bank’s capital buffer, non-performing loans, return on
equity and the level of deposits. Then I introduce the aggregated disclosure index into the
baseline specification. The principal estimation method is the fixed-effects estimator.
yaggrisk i , t +1 yaggrisk i , t +1 sysrisk i ,t +1
sysrisk i ,t +1
yidiorisk i , t +1 yidiorisk i , t +1
disc i , t
¿ ¿ i, t
capbuf i ,t
npl i , t
roe i , t
ydownrisk i , t +1
depo i , t
Prob > F
Note: (*), (**) and (***) significance at the 1%, 5% and 10% level, respectively.
Table 3.7 contains the results of panel regression analysis, where the dependent variables
are the average value of defined above four risk measures over a year following an
announcement of an annual report. Table 3.7 presents the results for baseline specification and
for the models with included aggregated disclosure index.
Table 3.7 Regression analysis results
All models are statistically significant. The significance of the following variables is
observed: the independent variable disc i , t
as well as control variables
volai ,t ,
capbuf i ,t , npl i , t , roe i , t , depo i , t .
Column I shows the estimation results for the baseline specification, where the dependent
variable is the aggregated risk ( yaggrisk i , t +1 ). I observe statistically significant coefficients on
bank’s capital buffer and non-performing loans ( capbuf i ,t
and npl i , t ) and insignificant
coefficients on the firm size, return on equity and the level of deposits ( ¿ ¿ i , t ,
roe i , t
depo i , t ). As expected, the BHC’s aggregated risk negatively related to the bank’s capital
buffer in other words increased capital buffer in the previous year decreases the aggregated risk
of bank holding company in the following year. Additionally increased level of the nonperforming loans in the previous year results in increased aggregated risk of bank holding
Column III and V reveals a negative and significant relationship between the firm size (
¿ ¿ i , t ) and systemic risk as well as idiosyncratic risk ( sysrisk
i ,t +1
yidiorisk i , t +1 ).
Additionally we can see positive and significant relationship between the non-performing loans
and the level of deposits. As expected, the bigger bank holding companies benefit from lower
systemic risk and idiosyncratic risk, which could be a result of implicit too-big-to-fail
guarantees. Moreover higher accounting risks expressed by the non-performing loans and the
level of deposits lead to increased systemic and idiosyncratic risks of the bank holding company.
Finally, Column VII shows the estimation results for the baseline specification, where the
dependent variable is the downside risk ( ydownrisk b , t +1 ). As we can see all coefficients are
statistically significant. However not all of the parameter estimates before variables have
expected signs. The results state negative relationship between the level of deposits ( depo i , t )
and downside risk. This could be explained as follows: deposits are likely to have long-term
maturity hence maturity gap between loans and deposits is not so big.
After adding the aggregated disclosure index, we can see that in all specifications
disclosure index ( disc i , t ) is significant and negatively associated with the enterprise risks such
as the aggregated risk, the systemic risk, the idiosyncratic risk and the downside risk.
Additionally the sign and significance of each control variable are preserved.
Results of the research enable us to make a conclusion about the existence of the
relationship between disclosure and different enterprise risks. In particular, it can be observed
that there is significant relationship between such enterprise risks as the aggregated risk, the
systemic risk, the idiosyncratic risk, the downside risk and the aggregated disclosure index. The
significance of disclosure index allows us to accept the hypotheses about the negative
relationship with enterprise risks.
The expected sign of disclosure on the aggregated risk is uncertain. As it was said
previously a number of studies argue that disclosure is positively associated with sock prices
volatility (Ross; 1989, Leuz and Verrecchia; 2000). On the other hand, some studies reveal that
enhanced disclosure decreases stock volatility (Bushee and Noe; 2000, Baumann and Nier; 2004,
Kothari, Li, and Short; 2009, and So; 2011). The results provide evidence supporting the second
group of studies telling that the higher the level of bank’s disclosure in the current year the lower
stock volatility in the following year. This can be explained as follows, by mitigating uncertainty
disclosure may reduce the degree of the impact of news about bank’s performance that in turn
would reduce stock volatility (Lang and Lundholm; 1993, Bushee and Noe; 2000). After that the
simple theories of market microstructure suggests that increased level of disclosure decreases the
information asymmetry among different investors and lower the advantage to be better-informed.
This in turn decreases the price impact of trade actions of informed investors (Diamond and
Verrecchia 1991). Hence, the increased level of disclosure may lower diversity of investors’
beliefs about real value of the bank as a result reducing the volume traded and stock price
Column IV and VI shows that enhanced level of disclosure decreases both systemic and
idiosyncratic risks of bank holding companies. This finding support the results of Lambert et al.
(2007) and Ashbaugh-Skaife et al. (2009). Here we can conclude that disclosure is an important
determinant of systemic and idiosyncratic risks. Easley and O’Hara; 2004 and O’Hara (2003)
claim that a firm’s financial reporting quality can influence the firm’s information environment
and in turn its systemic and idiosyncratic risks. Hence, bank holding companies with lower level
of disclosure present higher information risk to investors that in turn is translated into higher
systemic and idiosyncratic risks.
Finally, in column VIII regression analysis has revealed a significant negative
relationship between the downside risk and the aggregated disclosure index. The finding support
the results of Ederington and Lee (1996) and Rogers, Skinner, and Van Buskirk (2009) who
showed that the disclosure of certain type information is associated with lower downside risk.
From managerial point of view, the results of the study may be useful for outside
investors as well as banks. Enhanced information disclosure may influence the investment
decisions of outside investors. Controlling for a number of bank holding company financial
characteristics, such as the size, the volatility, the capital buffer, the non-performing loans ratio,
return on equity and the level of deposits, we find that bank holding companies that provide
more information in their disclosure show lower measures of the aggregated risk, the systemic
risk, the idiosyncratic and the downside risk than do banks that provide less information. It
seems that investors tend to invest more in companies with lower level of risk. Moreover, the
results suggest that higher level of disclosure may be beneficial for banks as well, if lower level
of enterprise risks will be translated into reduced cost of capital.
Information problem as well as agency problem is argued as one of the main reasons that
impede the optimal allocation of resources in capital markets. In periods of market turbulence,
market participants prefer safe haven investments. Hence, investors with low quality information
about assets reduce their holdings, while holders of high quality assets are unwilling to sell at
prevailing market prices, leading to a collapse of market functioning. One of the possible ways to
mitigate the problem is requirement to increase the level of corporate disclosure.
This master thesis is devoted to the analyses of the relationship between disclosure and
riskiness of a financial institution. The structure of the master thesis is constructed in the way
that enables consistently achieve the goal. In the first chapter, four types of risks that investors
typically face while making investment decisions are defined. Moreover, the methods to measure
these risks are also described. In the second chapter, we describe the role of disclosure in capital
market and peculiarities of corporate disclosure in U.S. Then based on the review of previous
studies different consequences of disclosure have been identified, additionally the relationship
between disclosure and riskiness of a financial institution has been argued. At the third chapter,
we formulated the research hypotheses and described models and the main variables. To test the
hypotheses a sample of 66 U.S. publicly listed bank holding companies has been formed.
To measure the level of disclosure I used the method proposed by Rhiannon Sowerbutts,
Peter Zimmerman and Ilknur Zer in Banks’ disclosure and financial stability report. The authors
identified four main groups in corporate disclosure related to the riskiness of financial institution:
liquidity risk, group structure, intra-annual information and spillover risk. All categories consist
of 14 sub-indices. For each sub-index the score 1 is given when bank holding company provides
the relevant information in its 10-K statements, annual, or proxy reports for a particular year.
However, no judgments on the quality of disclosed information was made. The Principal
Component Analysis for calculation of the aggregated disclosure index were employed.
The results presented in this paper suggests that disclosure may help to mitigate some of
information asymmetry. In particular, I show that after controlling for a number of bank holding
company financial characteristics, such as the size, the volatility, the capital buffer, the nonperforming loans ratio, return on equity and the level of deposits an increased disclosure is
followed by decreased aggregated risk, systemic risk, idiosyncratic risk, and downside risk.
Obtained results provide some possible managerial implications. Higher level of
disclosure may be useful for investors as well as banks themselves. First, enhanced information
disclosure may influence the investment decisions of outside investors. It seems that investors
tend to invest more in companies with lower level of risk. Second, higher level of disclosure may
be useful for banks as well, if lower level of enterprise risks will be translated into reduced cost
List of References
1. Akerlof, George A. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market
Mechanism." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 84, no. 3 (1970): 488.
2. Apostolik, Richard, Christopher Donohue, and Peter Went. Foundations of Banking Risk:
An Overview of Banking, Banking Risks, and Risk-based Banking Regulation . Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley, 2009.
3. Ashbaugh-Skaife, Hollis, Daniel W. Collins, William R. Kinney Jr, and Ryan Lafond.
"The Effect of SOX Internal Control Deficiencies on Firm Risk and Cost of Equity."
Journal of Accounting Research 47, no. 1 (2009): 1-43.
4. Bank of England, Financial Stability Report, (2009) December.
5. Baumann, U., and E. Nier. "Disclosure, volatility and transparency: an empirical
investigation into the value of bank disclosure", Working paper, Federal Reserve Bank of
New York. (2004)
6. Bebchuk, Lucian Arye, and Jesse M. Fried. "Executive Compensation as an Agency
Problem." SSRN Electronic Journal SSRN Journal.
7. Botosan, C. "Disclosure level and the cost of capital." The Accounting Review 72 (1997):
8. Bradfield, James. Introduction to the Economics of Financial Markets. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2007.
9. Brealey, Richard A., and Stewart C. Myers. Principles of Corporate Finance. New York:
10. Bushee, Brian J., and Christopher F. Noe. "Corporate Disclosure Practices, Institutional
Investors, and Stock Return Volatility." Journal of Accounting Research 38 (2000): 171.
11. Campbell, John, Martin Lettau, Burton Malkiel, and Yexiao Xu. "Have Individual Stocks
Become More Volatile? An Empirical Exploration of Idiosyncratic Risk." 2000.
12. Demsetz, Rebecca S., Marc R. Saidenberg, and Philip E. Strahan. "Agency Problems and
Risk Taking At Banks." SSRN Electronic Journal SSRN Journal.
13. Diamond, Douglas W., and Robert E. Verrecchia. "Disclosure, Liquidity, and the Cost of
Capital." The Journal of Finance 46, no. 4 (1991): 1325-359.
14. "Downside Deviation as a Risk Measure." Invest Excel. 2011. Accessed May 25, 2016.
15. Easley, David, Soeren Hvidkjaer, and Maureen O'Hara. "Is Information Risk a
Determinant of Asset Returns?" The Journal of Finance 57, no. 5 (2002): 2185-221.
16. Easley, David, and Maureen O'hara. "Information and the Cost of Capital." The Journal
of Finance 59, no. 4 (2004): 1553-583.
17. Ederington, Louis H., and Jae Ha Lee. "The Creation and Resolution of Market
Uncertainty: The Impact of Information Releases on Implied Volatility." The Journal of
Financial and Quantitative Analysis 31, no. 4 (1996): 513.
18. "SEC Disclosure Laws and Regulations." Inc. Accessed May 10, 2016.
19. "Downside Risk Definition | Investopedia." Investopedia. 2003. Accessed May 10, 2016.
20. Kirabaeva Kirabaeva. Adverse Selection and Financial Crises. Working paper. Bank of
Ca Nada Review, 2010.
21. Knight, Frank H. Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company,
22. Kothari, S. P., Xu Li, and James E. Short. "The Effect of Disclosures by Management,
Analysts, and Business Press on Cost of Capital, Return Volatility, and Analyst Forecasts:
A Study Using Content Analysis." The Accounting Review 84, no. 5 (2009): 1639-670.
23. Kraus, Susan. Enhancing Bank Transparency: Public Disclosure and Supervisory
Information That Promote Safety and Soundness in Banking Systems. Basle: Basle
Committee on Banking Supervision, 1998.
24. Lambert, Richard, Christian Leuz, and Robert E. Verrecchia. "Accounting Information,
Disclosure, and the Cost of Capital." J Accounting Res Journal of Accounting Research
45, no. 2 (2007): 385-420.
25. Lang, Mark, and Russell Lundholm. "Cross-Sectional Determinants of Analyst Ratings of
Corporate Disclosures." Journal of Accounting Research 31, no. 2 (1993): 246.
26. Leuz, Christian, and Robert E. Verrecchia. "The Economic Consequences of Increased
Disclosure." SSRN Electronic Journal SSRN Journal.
27. Markowitz, Harry. "Portfolio Selection." The Journal of Finance 7, no. 1 (1952): 77.
28. Rajgopal, Shiva, and Mohan Venkatachalam. "Financial Reporting Quality and
Idiosyncratic Return Volatility." Journal of Accounting and Economics 51, no. 1-2
29. Report on Consolidation in the Financial Sector. Place of Publication Not Identified:
Publisher Not Identified, 2001.
30. Revised Pillar 3 Disclosure Requirements Standards. Basel: Bank for Internat.
31. Rogers, Jonathan L., Douglas J. Skinner, and Andrew Van Buskirk. "Earnings Guidance
and Market Uncertainty." Journal of Accounting and Economics 48, no. 1 (2009): 90109.
32. Ross, Stephen A. "Information and Volatility: The No-Arbitrage Martingale Approach to
Timing and Resolution Irrelevancy." The Journal of Finance 44, no. 1 (1989): 1-17.
33. Roy, A. D. "Safety First and the Holding of Assets." Econometrica 20, no. 3 (1952): 431.
34. Sharpe, William F. Investments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985.
35. Sorescu, Alina B., and Jelena Spanjol. "Innovation's Effect on Firm Value and Risk:
Insights from Consumer Packaged Goods." Journal of Marketing 72, no. 2 (2008): 11432.
36. Stuart, Alan, and Harry M. Markowitz. "Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of
Investments." Or 10, no. 4 (1959): 253.
37. Verrecchia, Robert E. "Essays on Disclosure." Journal of Accounting and Economics 32,
no. 1-3 (2001): 97-180.
38. Zer, Ilknur. "Disclosure Practices and Option Implied Probability of Default." SSRN
Electronic Journal SSRN Journal.
Table 1 List of Bank holding companies
ASSOCIATED BANC CORP
BANK OF AMER CORP
BANK OF HI CORP
BANK OF NY MELLON CORP
BOSTON PRIVATE FNCL HOLD
CAPITAL ONE FC
CATHAY GEN BC
CENTRAL PACIFIC FC
CITIZENS REPUBLIC BC
CITY NAT CORP
EAST W BC
FIFTH THIRD BC
FIRST CITIZENS BSHRS
FIRST COMMONWEALTH FNCL
FIRST HORIZON NAT CORP
FIRST MIDWEST BC
FULTON FNCL CORP
INTERNATIONAL BSHRS CORP
JPMORGAN CHASE & CO
M&T BK CORP
NATIONAL PENN BSHRS
NEW YORK CMNTY BC
NORTHERN TR CORP
OLD NAT BC
PACIFIC CAP BC
PARK NAT CORP
PNC FNCL SVC GROUP
PROVIDENT BSHRS CORP
STATE STREET CORP
2010 TA ($ bn)
SVB FNCL GRP
U S BC
UNITED CMNTY BK
VALLEY NAT BC
WEBSTER FNCL CORP
WELLS FARGO & CO
Table 2 Variables description
Standard deviation of weekly equity returns
The aggregated risk
si ,t =
w i ,t
∑ (r −ŕ )2
w i ,t −1 w =1 i , w i
where w i ,t
is the number of weeks available in
year t for bank i; r i , w is the equity return of bank
i in week w, ŕ i is the expected equity return of
The systemic risk
Beta estimated from security market model
r i ,t −r f , t =α i +β i (r m ,t −r f , t )+ ε i , t
where r i ,t
is the weekly stock return for bank
holding company i in week t. r f , t is the weekly
return from holding a 3-month risk-free treasurybill, r m, t
is the weekly return for NYSE or
NASDAQ market index in week t, α i is the
β i (or beta) is the slope term, and
ε i , t is an random error term.
Standard deviation of the weekly residuals of
The downside risk
Downside deviation of a stock market asset’s
weekly returns below minimum accepted returns
min (¿¿ i, w−c , 0)
w i , t−1 w=1
sd i ,t = √ ¿
where w i ,t
is the number of weeks available in
year t for bank i; r i , w is the equity return of bank
i in week w, c
is minimum accepted return
which is equal 0.0% for the purpose of this research
disc b , t
Measured by the formula:
disc i , t =α 1 LIQi , t +α 2 GRP STRi ,t +α 3 INTRA i ,t +α 4 SPIL i ,t
LIQ i , t
– the disclosure score on liquidity risk
– the disclosure score on group
GRP STRi ,t
– the disclosure score on intra-annual
INTRA i , t
SPILi , t
– the disclosure score on spillover risk
α1 , α2 ,
α3 , α4
– the w eights of
This variable calculated as the natural logarithm of
bank’s market capitalization at the end of the year.
Measured by the formula:
w i ,t
Pi ,w −P i ,w
volai ,t =
w i ,t w=1
Pi , w
where w i ,t
is the number of weeks available in
year t for stock i;
Pi , w ,
P i , w and
P i , w are
the average weekly highest, the average weekly
lowest and closing prices for equity of bank i in
capbuf i ,t
npl i , t
roe i , t
depo i , t
Capital buffer ratio calculated as the bank's equity
capital as a proportion of its total liabilities
The Non-performing loans ratio calculated as
bank’s non-performing loans as a proportion of its
Return on equity
Calculated as the ratio of the income before
The level of deposits
extraordinary items to total book equity.
Calculated as the natural logarithm of total deposits.